THE RISE OF THE UNIVERSITIES 135 but schools had sprung up everywhere in the towns which were the centres of resistance to barbarian invasion. Consequently, when peace returned to Europe, with the Eleventh Century, there was a more numerous company of students in all countries than ever before to whom the philosophical and theological discussions of the scholastics appealed. It must not be thought that logic was the only interest of these scholars. At a later time, indeed, it almost monopolized the attention of the schools of higher learning ; but even at the begin- ning of the Twelfth Century there was a famous school at Chartres in the north of France, where the study of the ancient literatures flourished under the inspiration of Bernard Sylvester, as it did nowhere else till the renaissance of the Fifteenth Century. So long as the great schools were isolated institutions, and depended for their reputation and for the special character of their studies, on outstanding teachers, there was very considerable variety among them. With the rise of Paris to a position of pre-eminence, however, the age of great teachers passed, and the tradition of learning became localized in enduring institutions greater than their greatest teachers. And with this went a standardizing of the sub- jects of study, and a certain narrowing of educational interest. This change took place some time about the beginning of the Twelfth Century. Before then Paris had only been one of several French towns frequented by students. At one time, when Lan- franc and his successor Anselm, both subsequently Archbishops of Canterbury, were heads of the school of Bee in Normandy, it was to Bee rather than to Paris that foreign students came to learn theology. But the selection of Paris as the capital of France by the Capet kings, gave it an advantage over other towns which more than balanced a temporary superiority of teachers elsewhere, and by the end of the Eleventh Century it was already well on the way to first place among the educational centres of the country. The head of the cathedral school of Notre Dame at that time was William of Champeaux, who lectured on theology " like an angel from heaven " ; and besides him there was a considerable num- ber of able scholars who taught arts and theology in their own schools. It only needed a man of outstanding genius to complete the ascendancy of Paris ; and in due season the man appeared in Peter Abelard (1079-1142).